Motion Speeches

發展智慧城市 Development of smart city

問題:

  有專業人士指出,政府早於二○一四年提出以「智慧香港,智優生活」為主題的資訊科技策略,但進度相當緩慢。政府於上月才公布《香港智慧城市藍圖》,勾劃未來五年的發展計劃。就此,政府可否告知本會:

(一)鑑於規劃署於去年三月公開《全港人口及就業數據矩陣》(矩陣),供相關專業界別進行技術評估時參考,但所發放的不是454個小分區的數據,而是經整合成26個較大分區的數據,以致有關界別未能充分利用該等數據,當局會否探討長遠如何與相關界別更有效地分享有關數據,以及重新考慮公開按小分區劃分的矩陣數據,並規定各政府部門日後發放數據時須採用機器可閱讀的格式,以便利應用程式開發者和相關界別使用;若會,詳情為何;若否,原因為何;

(二)除了推行「起動九龍東」計劃,當局會否加快於洪水橋、東涌東和西等新發展區落實各項與智慧城市相關的建議,包括規劃通訊、管網、智能家居、綠色建築等基建設施,並運用創新科技和大數據,就交通、醫療、環保和長者服務等作出妥善規劃,致力打造綠色低碳的智慧社區;若會,詳情為何;若否,原因為何;及

(三)鑑於當局在二○一六年的《施政報告》中提出,在三年內將「Wi-Fi.HK」的Wi-Fi熱點增加一倍至34 000個,該項工作至今的進度為何;當局會否檢視該目標,加快設置Wi-Fi熱點,並進一步提升位處繁忙地點的Wi-Fi熱點的網速,讓市民能夠真正享用免費Wi-Fi服務;若會,詳情為何;若否,原因為何?

答覆:

主席:

  政府積極推動智慧城市發展。我們於二○一七年十二月十五日公布了《香港智慧城市藍圖》 (藍圖),概述將香港構建成為世界領先智慧城市的願景和目標,和未來五年的發展計劃,涵蓋「智慧出行」、「智慧生活」、「智慧環境」、「智慧市民」、「智慧政府」及「智慧經濟」六個主要範疇,當中包括開放數據、推動空間數據共享平台、發展三維數碼地圖及增加公共Wi-Fi熱點等。

  就盧議員的提問,經諮詢發展局後,現回覆如下:

(一)由規劃署每隔兩至三年更新的《全港人口及就業數據矩陣》(數據矩陣),以454個「規劃數據小區」劃分,主要供政府內部用作規劃長遠及策略性土地用途及基建設施。為回應社會包括專業界別的訴求,規劃署自去年三月公開按26個較大「規劃數據地區」整合而成的數據矩陣。決定此發放形式之前,規劃署徵詢了負責審批各類私人項目的技術評估部門,它們均認為以26個「規劃數據地區」整合的數據,足夠協助業界進行技術評估。此外,數據矩陣當中涉及一些非常初步及研究中的發展項目假設,資料具敏感性,亦會隨時間推移改變。進一步公開按小區劃分的數據或會披露這些敏感資料,而引起公眾不必要的誤會。規劃署認為目前的安排已在對業界開放數據的訴求及避免披露敏感資料兩者之間取得適當平衡。無論如何,規劃署現正就政府統計處二○一七年九月公布的人口推算為數據矩陣作出更新。為更便利業界使用,規劃署在過程中會考慮把較仔細的數據公開,及採用機器可閱讀格式。

  就開放數據格式方面,政府資訊科技總監辦公室已發出指引,協助各局和部門因應不同的資料性質,採用最適合的格式和方式(如透過應用程式界面)發放數據,方便公眾使用。因應有關指引,除須以圖像發放的資料外(例如交通快拍圖像),各局和部門一般均已採用機讀格式發放數據。截至二○一七年十二月,「資料一線通」網站(data.gov.hk)載有超過3 100個不同的數據集,當中有超過2 000個數據集以機讀格式發放(JSON/XML/CSV/XLS/XLSX/RSS)。為方便軟件開發人員在大量資料中選取所需資料,網站亦提供超過1 000個應用程式界面。

(二)政府公布的藍圖,提出利用創新及科技,包括大數據分析、人工智能、物聯網、感應器等,在不同領域例如交通、醫療、環保、教育等推出措施,將香港建設成為智慧城市。

  在土地及基建規劃上,我們亦需要一套嶄新思維,以配合整體增長及提升宜居度,並增強香港的整體競爭力。就此,《香港2030+:跨越2030年的規劃遠景與策略》建議採用符合「智慧、環保及具抗禦力」原則的城市策略,應用於不同層面包括新發展區的規劃。除此之外,政府在規劃新發展區的過程中,規劃署從規劃研究階段開始,亦會參考藍圖的內容,並與相關政策局和部門保持聯繫,將適合的措施包括在新發展區的規劃中。

  政府現時推展的新發展區及新市鎮擴展區項目,已在規劃設計過程中研究引入智慧及綠色社區元素,及預留用地以落實相關建議。有關措施主要包括以下四方面:

  首先,我們會在新發展區預留空間提供智慧城市設施,例如多功能智慧燈柱和智慧垃圾及廢物回收箱;

  第二是出行,政府將建設集約並以集體公共運輸為骨幹的社區,同時會提供完善、方便和具吸引力的單車徑及行人網絡,供消閒用途及方便日常往來;

  第三是公用設施,有關部門會研究循環利用雨水及再造水的供水系統,以及提供區域供冷系統,以減少區內空調的能源消耗;

  最後是活化河道海岸,以保育環境生態及推廣親水文化。

(三)二○一六年五月,政府獲立法會財務委員會通過撥款五億元推行Wi-Fi連通城市計劃,在更多政府及其他場地提供免費Wi-Fi服務,目標是在二○一九年把熱點數目倍增至34 000個。截至二○一七年十二月,「Wi-Fi.HK」熱點數目已超過20 300個。

  我們會不斷適時檢討計劃推行的進度,並在有需要時就推行細節作出調整和考慮其他方法,以加快Wi-Fi熱點數目的增長,務求達到定下的目標。

  在網速方面,現時在計劃下大部分政府場地及公私營機構場地內的Wi-Fi網速平均達到每秒3至4兆比特,足以應付使用一般互聯網服務,如瀏覽網頁、使用社交媒體、即時通訊、收發電郵以及觀看影片等。以公私營合作模式提供的免費Wi-Fi服務,平均上網速度更達到每秒8兆比特。

  隨着Wi-Fi技術不斷發展,我們會逐步採用最新的Wi-Fi技術標準(IEEE 802.11ac),盡量減少訊號干擾,提升數據傳輸的速度及穩定性。我們亦要求承辦商在可行情況下採用光纖網絡,為市民及旅客提供更快捷及穩定的Wi-Fi服務。 

 
 
Question:

     Some professionals have pointed out that the Government proposed as early as in 2014 an information technology strategy with the theme "Smarter Hong Kong, Smarter Living", but the progress was rather slow. Not until last month did the Government release the Smart City Blueprint for Hong Kong, mapping out the development plans in the next five years. In this connection, will the Government inform this Council:

(1) given that the Planning Department made public in March last year the Territorial Population and Employment Data Matrix (TPEDM) for reference of the relevant professional sectors in conducting technical assessments but the aggregated data of 26 larger districts rather than the data of 454 small districts were released, rendering the relevant sectors being unable to make full use of those data, whether the authorities will examine how to share those data more effectively with the relevant professions in the long run and consider afresh publishing the TPEDM data by small district, as well as require various government departments to adopt machine-readable formats when publishing data in future, so as to facilitate application developers and relevant sectors in using the data; if so, of the details; if not, the reasons for that;

(2) apart from implementing the Energizing Kowloon East project, whether the authorities will expedite the implementation in new development areas (such as Hung Shui Kiu, Tung Chung East and Tung Chung West) of various smart city related proposals, including conducting planning for infrastructure such as communications, pipe networks, smart homes and green architecture, as well as making proper planning on transport, healthcare, environmental protection, elderly services, etc. by using innovative technologies and big data, with a view to striving to create a green and low-carbon smart community; if so, of the details; if not, the reasons for that; and

(3) as the authorities proposed in the 2016 Policy Address that the number of Wi-Fi hotspots under Wi-Fi.HK be doubled to 34 000 within three years, of the progress of such work so far; whether the authorities will review that target and expedite the installation of Wi-Fi hotspots and further raise the Internet access speeds of Wi-Fi hotspots at busy locations, so as to enable members of the public to truly enjoy free Wi-Fi service; if so, of the details; if not, the reasons for that?

Reply:

President,

     The Government actively promotes smart city development. We published the Smart City Blueprint for Hong Kong (the Blueprint) on December 15, 2017, outlining the Government’s vision and mission to build Hong Kong into a leading smart city of the world, and development plans in the next five years covering six major areas, namely, "Smart Mobility", "Smart Living", "Smart Environment", "Smart People", "Smart Government" and "Smart Economy", including open data, developing Common Spatial Data Infrastructure, 3D digital map, increasing the number of public Wi-Fi hotspots, etc. 

     In consultation with the Development Bureau, our reply to the various parts of the question is as follows:

(1) The Territorial Population and Employment Data Matrix (TPEDM) is updated by the Planning Department (PlanD) every two to three years. With data demarcated into 454 Planning Data Zones (PDZs), the TPEDM is mainly used by the Government internally for the long-term and strategic land use and infrastructure planning. To respond to the requests of the public, including those of the relevant professions, the PlanD has since March 2017 published the TPEDM data which are aggregated into 26 larger Planning Data Districts (PDDs). In considering the dissemination of data, the PlanD had consulted departments responsible for vetting the technical assessments of various private projects. These departments considered that data aggregated into 26 larger PDDs would suffice for facilitating the industry to conduct technical assessments. Besides, the TPEDM contains certain assumptions for development projects which are very preliminary and still subject to studies; the relevant data are not only sensitive but also subject to changes along the time. Further publishing data in PDZs may disclose such sensitive information, thereby leading to unnecessary misunderstanding in the public. The PlanD considers that the current arrangement has struck a right balance between the industry's request for open data and avoiding disclosure of sensitive information. In any case, the PlanD is now updating the TPEDM with regard to the population projection published by the Census and Statistics Department in September 2017. To facilitate the industry's usage, the PlanD will consider publishing more detailed data in machine-readable format.

     Regarding the format of open data, the Office of the Government Chief Information Officer has issued guidelines to assist bureaux and departments (B/Ds) in releasing data in the most suitable formats and ways (e.g. through Application Programming Interfaces (APIs)) according to the nature of different data, in order to make it convenient for public use. In response to the guidelines, B/Ds have generally been releasing data in machine-readable formats, except information that has to be released in image format (e.g. traffic snapshots). As of December 2017, there were over 3 100 various datasets under the Public Sector Information Portal (data.gov.hk), of which over 2 000 datasets are in machine-readable formats (JSON / XML / CSV / XLS / XLSX / RSS). The portal also provides over 1 000 APIs for software developers to extract the information required from the large amount of information therein.

(2) The Blueprint published by the Government proposes using innovation and technology, including big data analytics, artificial intelligence, Internet of Things, sensors, etc., to build Hong Kong into a smart city through introducing measures in different areas, including transport, health, environment and education.

     From the land and infrastructure planning perspective, we would also need a new way of thinking to cope with growth and enhance liveability, as well as to strengthen our city's overall competitiveness. As such, "Hong Kong 2030+: Towards a Planning Vision and Strategy Transcending 2030" recommends a city strategy based on "smart, green and resilient" principles to be applied across different levels of planning, including planning for new development areas. Besides, in planning for New Development Areas (NDAs), the PlanD will from the planning studies stage make reference to the Blueprint and liaise with relevant B/Ds, with a view to including suitable measures in the planning of the NDAs.

     During the planning and design stages of the NDA and New Town Extension projects being developed by the Government, we have already explored introducing elements of a smart and green community and reserve land for related implementation. Our proposals mainly cover the following four aspects:

     Firstly, we will reserve space in the NDAs for provision of smart city facilities, such as multi-functional smart lampposts, smart rubbish and recyclables collection bins;

     Secondly, on mobility, the Government will plan for compact developments with public transport to serve as the backbone for the communities. Comprehensive, convenient and attractive cycling and pedestrian networks will be provided for leisure and commuting purposes;

     Thirdly, for public services, the relevant departments will examine the feasibility of water supply system that can reuse rainwater and recycled water. To reduce the energy consumption of the areas, provision of district cooling system will be explored;

     Lastly, we will revitalise river channels and coastline to conserve the environment and ecology and also promote a water-friendly culture.

(3) In May 2016, the Finance Committee of the Legislative Council approved a funding commitment of $500 million to implement the Wi-Fi Connected City Programme to provide free Wi-Fi service at more government and other venues, with a target of doubling the number of hotspots to 34 000 by 2019. As at December 2017, the number of Wi-Fi.HK hotspots has exceeded 20 300. 

     We will review the implementation progress at the appropriate juncture, and if necessary, adjust the implementation details and consider other ways to enhance the growth of Wi-Fi hotspots, with a view to achieving the target set.

     As for connection speed, at present, the average connection speed of Wi-Fi service at most government venues and venues operated by public and private organisations under the programme reaches 3 to 4 Mbps, which is sufficient for supporting general Internet services, such as web browsing, using social media, instant messaging, sending and receiving emails and watching videos, etc. The average connection speed of free Wi-Fi services provided through the public-private collaboration model can even reach 8 Mbps.

     With the continuous development of Wi-Fi technology, we will gradually adopt the latest Wi-Fi technology standard (IEEE 802.11ac) to reduce signal interference as far as possible and improve data transfer speed and stability. We will also request contractors to use fibre links wherever feasible to provide the public and tourists with faster and more stable Wi-Fi services. 

立法會盧偉國議員 博士 工程師 (工程界)
Legislative Council Ir Dr Hon Lo Wai Kwok (Functional Constituency - Engineering)